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Introducing the
Electoral System



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(Printable versions of this page: Introduction only or full Document)

Do you feel poorly represented by our current
First-Past-The-Post electoral system?
Not particularly enthusiastic about any of the many versions of

Proportional Representation?

If "Yes" to both questions please consider the
as your
Alternative Electoral system of choice!


There is a growing disenchantment with the flaws of the First-Past-The-Post (FPTP) electoral system in many of the world’s democracies that are still using it.  Where that disenchantment exists the discussion to date has been on completely replacing it with one of the multiple varieties of Proportional Representation (PR) electoral systems.  

Instead of replacing the First-Past-The-Post (FPTP) and throwing out its strengths along with its flaws the Absolute Representation Electoral System will correct FPTP’s flaws and retain its strengths. It will retain FPTP’s simplicity, functional systems, tested infrastructure and existing legal framework and then augment it with "Delegated Active & Effective Voting" (DAEV ).

With this combination of FPTP & DAEV  the Absolute Representation system will not only correct the flaws in FPTP that PR systems are intended to correct it will also correct FPTP flaws that PR systems don’t address and avoid flaws that exist in PR systems.   And…it will do so…

  • with no changes or additional cost to the existing FPTP systems and infrastructure required,

  • with the implementation and maintenance costs of the DAEV portion of the AR system being flexible from minimal to moderate depending on the methods chosen, and

  • without the vote counting contortions and/or party list dependencies that are the primary flaws in all the various PR systems.  Flaws which generate one mix or another of semi-proportional and/or party biased representation. 

The AR system will create more benefits to our citizenry, our society and to the way we govern ourselves than either FPTP alone or any PR system could ever come close to matching.

Most importantly Absolute Representation makes every citizen’s vote count effectively all the time and will, therefore, finally fulfill the democratic ideal of one person one vote all the way from the voter to the Governing Body for any level of government adopting it in any size of population for the full mandate of any Governing Body.

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DAEV Basics

Please Note:
Because different levels of government in different places use different terms for similar things the terms used in describing aspects of the DAEV system below are purposefully general and inclusive.  Hopefully they are self-explanatory in context but if needed visit our Glossary page.

  • A Delegated Active & Effective Voting system can be added to any First-Past-The-Post system without any changes required to the processes, rules and costs of how such FPTP elections are currently conducted.

    • Some changes to these FPTP components may well be deemed desirable, and therefore may be implemented, but they are not required. 

  • The only required changes are in how the votes cast in the election are allocated, utilized and administered after the election.

    • Under the DAEV system each vote cast for a particular Candidate is a delegation of that vote to that Candidate which remains “active” and “effective” until the next election.

    • Until that next election each Candidate, win or lose, has the right and responsibility to use the votes delegated to them as follows:

      • Candidates, from any Electoral Area, elected to a seat in the Governing Body by having the most votes delegated to them may, as Sitting Members, cast the total number of votes delegated to them in any vote taken by that body for the full mandate of that body.

        • This allows them to vote on all questions before the Governing Body in absolute proportion to the number of voters who voted for each of them.

      • Candidates not elected to a seat in the Governing Body become Constituency Members and may serve their constituencies by assigning or subsequently re-assigning, at their own discretion, the votes delegated to them by voters to any Sitting Member.  Sitting Member holding such assigned votes can then cast them in any votes taken by the Governing Body while those Delegated Votes remain assigned to them.

        • This enables the Constituency Members to serve their constituencies between elections from outside the Governing Body by ensuring that all the votes delegated to them can be counted in any vote taken by the Governing Body in absolute proportion to the number of voters who voted for each of them.

        • Sitting Members may then cast all of the delegated votes assigned to them by Constituency Members along with all the votes delegated directly to them in the election by voters.

        • This fulfills the, currently unfulfilled, democratic ideal of “one person one vote” by:

          • making all votes cast in any election eligible to be cast in any vote taken by the Governing Body, and

          • doing so for all such votes for the life of that Governing Body’s mandate, and thereby

          • providing the voters with Absolute Representation in the Governing Body

      • There is a wide variety of ways that the tracking and administration of the assigning and re-assigning of Delegated Active & Effective Votes can be accomplished depending on the speed, flexibility and cost balance deemed practical and/or desirable by those tasked with its implementation at the time of implementation.

        • From workable, and very economic, but inefficient: Constituency Members making delegated vote assignments via registered mail or by registering them in person at specified government offices.

        • To ideal, using reasonably, and efficient technologies: Access for Constituency Members to a secure, dedicated online tracking system allowing for immediate implementation of delegated vote assignments and real time tracking of vote totals for each Sitting Member for whenever they participate in a vote. Along with a variety of functionalities to support both Sitting and Constituency Members to share information, communicate, connect and interact easily and effectively.

        • Or anything between with: the tracking and administration capabilities of the system initially implemented being upgradable at any time that changes are deemed cost effective, practical and desirable.

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Adding the Delegated Active & Effective Voting system to any First-Past-The-Post electoral system will generate many benefits and can be done quickly and inexpensively with no changes required to the processes, rules and costs of existing FPTP elections.  The only required changes are in how the votes cast are allocated, utilized and administered after the election.

An Absolute Representation electoral system (FPTP+DAEV) will create…

  • a more accurate representation of all parties in the Governing Body,

  • more opportunities for Independents to be effective,

  • better representation for political, gender, racial and other minorities,

  • fewer wasted votes,

  • higher levels of voter turnout, and

  • less temptation to governing parties to gerrymander electoral areas

…than either FPTP alone or any PR system could manage.

A long list of Absolute Representation  benefits

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Queries, Suggestions and/or Feedback



This Electoral System was created to be an alternative to both
First-Past-The-Post (as we know it) & Proportional Representation (all versions)
and has been submitted to, the
Special Committee on Electoral Reform (ERRE)
 By: Bill Hanson, private citizen
250-920-4160   admin@AbsoluteRepresentation.ca

  Copyright © 2016 Bill Hanson for the Absolute Representation Electoral System